Below is a copy of Dr. Victor C. Vaughn's Address at the ceremony, as printed in the Columbia Missouri Herald on December 22, 1899. A transcription is provided below the images.
Copy of newspaper pages from microfilm held by the State Historical Society of Missouri.
PAGE 9 COLUMN 1 The corner-stone of the Parker Memorial Hospital was laid Tuesday. The occasion Was a most notable and interesting one. The ceremonies of the corner-stone laying were conducted by the Masonic Grand Lodge of Missouri. The address of the occasion was delivered by Dr. Victor C. Vaughn, dean of the medical department Of the University of Michigan. The day was bright and beautiful. A large crowd was present. Delegates from different towns in central Missouri, alumni from St. Louis, Kansas City, Sedalia and elsewhere, and other visitors were in at- tendance. The Masonic Grand Lodge, assembling at the hall of Twilight Lodge, marched to the site of the building. Dr. C. H. Briggs, of St. Louis, the Grand Master, Campbell Wells, of Platte City, the Deputy Grand Master, E. H. Finne- gan, of St. Louis, Grand Senior Warden, Dr. John D. Vincil, of St. Louis, Grand Secretary F. D. Hubbell, of Columbia, District Deputy Grand Master, and others took part in the ceremonies. Thomas Whittle acted as Grand Treasurer and Rev. J. S. Parmer as Grand Chaplain. The University cadet band led the procession and the cadets, in full uniform, acted as an escort. At the building the solemn, appropriate and interesting ceremonies of the laying of the stone took place. A copper box was placed in the stone con- taining records, a history of Mr. William L. Parker’s manificent gift which made the hospital possible, copies of the Colum- bia papers and catalogues and bulletins of the University. Following the ceremonies the address of Dr. Vaughn was delivered in the Uni- versity chapel. Dr. R. H. Jesse, presided and Dr. John D. Vincil, president of the board of curators, introduced in his usual graceful style, the speaker. Dr. Vaughn is a native of Randolph county, Missouri, a most distinguished scientist and now at the head of the greatest school of medicine in the Mississippi Valley. His address was an admirable one, full of information and helpful suggestion. It is printed in full in The Herald. A 6 o’clock the visiting Masons and other guests were entertained at supper by Twilight Lodge in the Christian church parlors. The meal was most delightfully prepared and was enjoyed with zeal. In the evening Dr. C. H. Briggs, the Grand Master, spoke at the Lodge-room on Masonry. From 8 to 10 o’clock, Dr. R. H. Jesse gave a reception at his home to the curat- ors and visitors and the members of the University Faculty. ---------------- Dr. Vaughn’s Address. Ladies and Gentlemen: I am happy to be with you to day and to participate in the ceremonies connected with the laying of the corner-stone of the Parker Memorial Hospital. My pleasure in this event is both personal and profes- sional. Missouri is my native state and I am always interested in the affiars of this Commonwealth and especially of this University, the advancement of which I have watched for many years, generally with pride, but occasionally with some de- gree of solicitude. I am a thorough be- liever in higher education supported by the State. The poorest boy or girl should have an opportunity for the highest and best intellectual development. Taxation for the support of a State University is a legitimate and proper method of taking from the rich and benefiting the poor. It is for the public good that education should be free. There can be but little danger of the formation of an autocratic class in this country so long as our State Universities continue to develop and to COLUMN 2 furnish equal opportunities in the pursuit and acquisition of knowledge to the sons and daughters of the poor and rich alike. True democracy has no better exemplifica- tion than in these schools. The honor and respect shown a student by his fellows is not measured by the wealth of his father, but is determined by his own in- dustry and intelligence. Student com- munities are quick to detect shams and ridicule with which a student inclined to wrong doing is punished is probably the most potent weapon ever utilized by society in the chastisement of an offend- ing member. I do not deny that Univers- ity life has its pitfalls, but on the whole I believe that determination to deal fairly with all and to see that others do the same is the fuiding principle amount stu- dents. Each one is willing to do his own share of work and his possibly somewhat more ready to see that his comrade does not shirk. Certainly, we must admit that there are black sheep even among uni- versity students, but as a rule, the colelge graduate or student is a man possessed of both physical and moral courage. In the Santiage Campaign of last year, I saw many things which increased my pride in my country, but that which gave me the greatest personal satisfaction was the behavior of college men. These did not shirk their duty, whether they wore shoulder straps or were assigned the most menial tasks along with men who had been day laborers all their lives. The garduates of our National Military School furnished our regular commands with most intelligent and cultured officers, who ex- emplified their heroism not only at El Caney and San Juan, but in the fortitude with which they submitted to the knife of the surgeon. The college men among our volunteer troops were not less deserving of praise. One of my own students fell by the side of COlonel Roosevelt near the summit of San Juan Hill. Another while drawing the last breath of life said, “I only wish that I had another life to give my country.” Others, some of whom had never known severe physical toil, dug pits, laundred clothes, and policed camps without a word of complaint. I would not have it understood that the Americans at Santiage, who had never been blessed with a liberal education, failed in their duty, but it must be admitted that intelli- gence combined with courage makes the best soldier. It is said, and I doubt not its truth, that when the struggle between Germany and France came in 1870, the superiority of the former was largely due to the great univerities which the German States had so wisely endowed and so lib- erally supported. I hope that the legislature of this State will continue its liberal policy towards this University, and it certainly would be a misfortune to have any party cripple its usefulness by failing to grant its adequate appropriations. The great wealth with which nature has endowed Missouri places upon those who direct its affiars grace re- sponsibilities, none of which are of more importance than the provision of ample facilities for the higher education of its sons and daughters. To the Curators of this University I wish to say, continue in your good work and do not hesitate to ask for liberal support from your legislature. You have done much and of this we are proud, but there is much more that you may do. Make this University as good as the best and better, if possible. Provide a means for the prosecution of liberal courses of study in Literature, the Arts, the Sciences, Law and Medicine. Make this the intellectual center of the State. To the men who have accumulated great wealth, let me make a plea for the endow- COLUMN 3 ment in this University of Chairs, for the building and equipment of laboratories in which instruction and research in the Sciences may be carried on, for the erec- tion of hositals and the provision of means for the best treatment of the un- fortunate sick. The man who thus dis- poses of a portion of his wealth will not bury his five talents, but will receive from coming generations the cmmendation of well done. The Sciences should recive especial encouragement in a state university, and support for the prosecution of work in these should be witheld because the benefits are not always apparent and im- mediate. Discoveries in Science are the gems dug from the earth by one genera- tion ; cut and polished by the next, and used to adorn the third. Had the re- searches of Faraday in pure Science never been made, the telegraph and the telephone would not to-day serve us in the transmis- sion of messages. To change the metaphor, Science is the hardy mariner that sails over unbroken seas and discovers new lands. The application of Science comes later and by this means the forests are cleared, homes are built, commerce flour- ishes and new nations come into exist- ence. Pure Science must always lead the way. Had it not been for the patient la- bors of men, many of whom remain un- known, who devoted their lives to pure Science, the civilization of to-day would be impossible. I have stated that my interest in to-day's celebration is personal, because the rec- tion of this hospital will extend the use- fullness of the University of my native State. It is also professional, because it pertains to the Science of Medicine, to which I have given the energies of my life. The man who builds a hospital in which the sick may recive the administration is of scientific medicine is a practical chris- tian, whatever his creed may be. If he who makes two blades of grass to grow where only one had grown before is a benefactor of his race, how much more deserving of this title is he who mitigates the sufferings of his fellowmen. The wisdom of a Solomon may not solve the mystery of life. It is not given to us to understand why sickness and suffering are common heritages of mankind. We are pilgrams journeying along a road; of many things we are densely ignorant; we can not even tell from whence we came, nor can we name the land for which we are bound; but we do know that the bur- dens placed upon the shoulders of men are unevenly distributed and the highest duty one can perform in this earthly pil- grimage is to lend a helping hand to a brother who bears a heavier burden. He who serves his fellowman, be he Chris- tain or be he Pagan, honor his creator. The idea of building hospitals had its first origin in man’s philanthropic desire to succor the sick. The first hospitals of which we have any knowledge were built in Egpyt from four to six thousand years before our era. As early as this, there were medical schools in connections with the Temples of Saturn. The learned Egyptologist, Ebers, states that a medical clinic was held at Heliopolis in a build- ing designated as the Great Hall. The Paprus of Ebers might be called a hand- book of hospitals and it contains a collec- tion of prescriptions for the most vari- ous maladies. The Chief Priest at Helio- polis was called the Urme and was the President or Dean od the Medical Faculty. Medical Schools, for which clinics were provided, were connected with many of the Temples of Ancient Egypt. In the Literature of the far East, there are found legends concerning the origin of hospitals. A Hindoo story relates that a nobleman, Suaruta by name, and six of his devoted companions, touched by the sufferings of men, sought Brahma, who advised them to build a hospital and gave them instruction in the treatment of dis- ease. The Indian Kind, Asoka, who resigned on the third century before Christ issued an edict in which his people were in- structed to rect and equip hospitals throughout his dominions. As was the custom at that time, this edict was en- COLUMN 4 graved on a stone and it may be seen and read to-day near Gujurat. Asoka not only caused many hospitals to be built, but he provided for their support by a tax of one- anna on each rupee of the net gain of mer- chants in all their transactions. Fi—Han, a Chinese Monk, who traveled through INdia in the fourh century A. D. describes the hospitals at Patna, which had been on the capital of the Kingdom of Asoka, as follows: “On the eighth day of the moon there was a great festival, when people from all the provinces as- sembled at Patna. here a delegate from each kingdom had established a medicine house of happiness and virtue. The poor, the orphans, the lame, in short, all the sick repair to these houses, where they re- ceive all that is necessary for their wants. Physicians examine their complaints, they are supplied with meat and drink accord- ing toe xperience, and medicines are ad- ministered to them. Everything contrib- utes to soothe them. Those that are cured go away of themselves.” Other instances might be given to show that even among heathen people the provi- sion of hospitals for the treatment of the sick has been regarded as one of the no- blest deeds that man can perform. He who does this serivce has always been re- garded as one who loves his fellowman. It will be most appropriate at this time to speak of hospitals connected with state and national schools of medicine. One of the most renowed of these is that con- nected with the National University at Christians. Patients from all parts of Nor- way are sent to this ospital and are util- ized by the professors in the medical school in giving clinical instruction to their stu- dents. Each patients who enters this hos- pital pays a fee and in case he is not able individually to do this, the province from which he is sent pays for him. The patients received are divided into three classes according to the accomoda- tions and meals furnished them. Those of the first class are charged about seventy- five cents a day. They occupy wards con- taining from four to ten beds and their diet is simply, but nutritious. those of the second class are charged about ninety cents a day. These occupy wards of at most three beds, and receive a more va- ried diet. Those of the third class have each a room and special nurse. They have more delicacies supplied them and are charged about $1.50 per day. This hospital contains two hundred and forty beds, is self-supporting and is one of the best conducted hospitals in the world. The conditions affecting you here are
PAGE 10 COLUMN 1 so similar to those prevalent with us at Ann Arbor that a brief mention of our hospitals arrangments may not be alto- gether without interest to you. We have a University Hospital of eighty beds which will be increased to one hundred and fifty beds during the coming year. Each pa- tient who comes to the hospital is fully utilised in giving cinical instruction. All operations are witnessed by the third and fourth year students. Patients are assigned to students, who take histories, make diag- noses, suggest treatment, apply dressing etc.--all under the guidance of the profes- sors and their assistants. Students visit the wards each day in sections accompanied by the porfessor in charge. Each patient occupying a bed in the general ward pays $5 per week and those who have separate rooms pay $9 per week. When a special nurse is needed there is an additional charge of $15 per week. With the present accomodations, we have been able to re- ceive less than sixty per cent of those who have applied for admission. The number treated yearly has averaged about 1,700 and this number will be increased to about 3,000 with the extension of accomodations to be completed during the coming year. For the most part, these patients are peo- ple who can pay the small charges made at a University Hospital, but would not be able to secure and pay for expert medical service. They are the respectable, hard working poor of the state. Besides these who make up the bulk of our patients, the Superintendents of the Poor in the coun- ties are authorize of send to this Hospital at the expense of the county any one who may be benefitted by treatement and who is not able to pay the charges. Furthermore, the superintendents of various state insti- tutions, such as the Public School for boys, the Industrial School for girls, The Asylums for the Deaf, Blind and feeble minded, etc., may send those under their charge to this Hospital at the expense of the State. In addition to these provisions, a statute provides that every physician who recognizes a deformity in a newly born child of poor parents shall, if he thinks such deformity can be relieved by opera- tion, cause such child to be sent to this hospital. The State pays for these cases. Clinical progessors in the Medical De- partment render hospital service without compensation other than their salaries. The gross annual receipts of this hospital ammount to nealy $35,000 and cover a lit- tle more than the current expense, includ- ing the salary of the Superintendent, pro- vision for twenty nurses and other help about the Hospital, but not including the salaries of professors nor the heating and lighting of the building. In this way the hospital has come to be recognized as one of the greatest and most practical charities of the State. Many men and women on the verge of papuerism are restored to health and return to their homes capable of earn- ing their living. Sickness is a weight that drags many an individual into the poor-house. By means of the help provided by the State hospital many a man is en- abled to cast off the burden which is sink- ing him into pauperism. he retains his self-respect and the community in which he lives is relieved from the necessity of supporting him. We feel that our hospital enables us to do much good, but we real- ise that our facilities are still inadequate and that the good accomplished is small compared with that which might be done. The Hospital, the corner-stone of which you have to-day placed in position, will be of great service to the Medicial Depart- ment of this University and a blessing to many of the people of the State. There are many diseases that can be treated satis- factorily only in hospitals. Until a few y ears ago, there was some prejudice against hospitals, the inamtes of which are util- ized in giving clinical instruction to medi- cal students. This prejudice was due to mistaken ideas on the part of the public. It was supposed that the treatment was left largely to students who made their first experiments upon the unfortunate sick. This was never true of any reput- able hospital in any part of the civil- ized world. In teaching hospitals as well as in others, the operations are per- formed and treatment is nprescribed by trained physicians. Experience has dem- onstrated that patients receive better care in teaching hospitals than in others. Un- der the keen eyes of bright students the clinical professor does his best work. He is more careful in his preliminary study COLUMN 2 of each case; he must be sure of his di- agnosis and he can not afford to make any errors in treatment. These facts are now generally recognized and is admitted by all that patients receive the best care and the most skillful treamtent when they serve for clinical instruction. Your Medical Department will be greatly benefitted by the facilities furnished in this Hospital. The best text-books and the most apt lecturers on clinical medicine can give the student only imperfect pictures of disease. The student of medicine es- pecially must see as well as hear. By see- ing cases he acquires a readiness in diag- nosis which no amount of reading could possibly give him. Beside instruction is necessary in order to illustrate and exem- plify lectures and texts. A comparatively small hospital to which students have ac- cess under the care of instructors furnishes much more valuable material so far as the medical student is concerned than do larger hospital which students can not en- ter and which serve as center of instruction only by furnishing pateints that are taken into the clinical amphitheater. Some of our large medical schools that boast of the number of patients at their disposal can not carry their students into the hoispitals. Clinical amphitheater teach- ing is a poor substitute for bedside instruc- tion, and a small hospital in which the latter can be carried on is much more valuable to a medical school than a much larger hospital in which oatients can be utilized only in the amphitheater. It is of but little beenfit to a student to witness from a distant seat a difficult surgical operation performed in the pit, and this little benefit vanishes into nothing if he can not follow the patient into the ward and see something of the subsequent treat- ment. Students can not acquire a practi- cal knowledge of clinical medicine by witnessing operations in an amphitheater any better than chemistry can be learned by watching from a distance the manipu- lation of professor of this subject. In order to be a microscopist it is not suffi- cient to look at a microscope, you must look through the instrument. In order to acquire skill in the treatment of disease it is not sufficient to see the patient from a distance ; but you must feel the pulse, auscultate the chest, palpate the abdomen, look in upon the retina, examine the vocal chords, apply the various tests to the blood, know how to dress a wound, etc. One never knows how to do a thing until he has once done it, or as someone else states: “The best preparation for doing a thing is the consciousness of having done it before.” This Hospital, properly managed, will be of service not only to the student, but it will furnish opportunities for the ad- vancement of scientific medicine. In teaching hosptials, records must be kept and well kept records of cases are always of value. Again, it is true that there is not always advantage in numbers. A dozen cases of any disease carefully and thoroughly studied are of more value to a studen than scores of patients, with the same disease, hurriedly passed by. In- deed, if I may be permitted, I will say confidentially to the medical student that thoroughness in the application of scien- tific methods to the study of cases in hand will be worth more to him in increased knowledge and advancement in his profes- sion than any number of carelessly ob- served cases can be. Medicine grows less and less empiris and more and more scientific every day, and the physician who fials to utilize scientific methods in the treatment of disease will not establish for himself a reputation, neither will he be of much service to his patients. The day has passed when the physician who fails to examine the blood in suspected malaria and consequently makes a wrong dianosis is entitled to the respect of his professional brethren, nor can failure to recognize tuberculosis, when the soutum is latent with the specific bacilli of this disease, be condoned. I wish to emphasize the fact that without the application of scientific methods of diagnosis and treatment the largest hospital in this world can to-day be of but little service to the science of medicine ; while on the other hand, with the application of scinetific methods, the thorough study and close observation of a limited number of cases may furnish most valuable information. Many of the great- est contributions yet made to medicine have resulted from the labors of men who COLUMN 3 lived remote from crowded centers of popu- lation. Was not Jenner, who by his dis- covery of vaccination practically freed man front hat most loathsome disease, small-pox, a provinvial Doctor who had time to observe closely what came under his eye? Was not Robert Koch a village physician when he mad ehis first contribut- ions to bateriology? Was not Ephriam McDowell a backwoods practicioner in Kentucky when he performed for the first time that great operation which has added thousands of years in the aggregate to the life of woman? Was not Marion Sims a young man without honor and advantages when in the then village of Montgomery, Alabama he kept a number of poor suffer- ing women at his own expense until he solved the technique of an operation which he was subsequently called to perform in the capital cities of Europe? Was not William Beaumont an army surgeon,l sta- tioned at his isolated post on the island of Mackinaw, when under difficulties appar- ently insurmountable, and with a perse= verance almost without a parallel, he carried on the now classical studies on digestion at the very time when the Prfoessor of Physiology in the University of Berlin pronounced all ideas concerning the gass- tric-jusice to be vain theories? Take from medicine the contributions that have been made by the village physician and you rob it of more than half its power and glory. Careful observation of apparently trivial things often leads to great results. In the year 1849, a practitioner in a small town in Germany described small rod-like bodies which he had observed in the blood of animals sick with anthrax. Of what possibly utility could such an obser- vation as this be? Yet, upon it the sci- ence of bacteriology in its application to the causation of disease is founded. This apparently useless discovery has grown un- til to-day voluminous handbooks failed to exhaust the subject, and of such practi- cal utility has it proved to be that it con- stitutes the most important factor in the saving of human life. Knowledge founded upon this apparently trivial ob- servation has classed puerperal septicemis, once the deadliest foe to parurient women, among the rare disease, has enabled the surgeon to explore any part of the human body, and forms the basis of the greatest and most human science known, that of the prevention of disease. Before this discovery and until its value was appreci- ated, the announcement that Asiatic chol- era was spreading over Europe always caused a panic in this country and when it came to our shores, men stood agahst; they were in the presence of an unknown foe; they say those about them stricken down. but they could not tell from whence the blow came. Commerce was paralyzed ; communities were thrown into panic and man often lost sympathy with his fellow- men, and even faith in God was shattered by dreadful affliction. Now that the cause of disease is known, we are not fright- ened, when even the black death sails into New York Harbor. We know that neither the Plague nor cholera can become epidemic in this country except as a result of the greatest carelssness on the part of those appointed to supervise our quarantine system. For this deliverance from the Plague and cholera, the more than 70,000,- 000 of people in this country may thank the lowly German Doctor who first observed bacteria in blood, and the profession which has developed the science of which he was a pioneer. The new Hospital will improve your in- struction, advance scientific medicine, and prove a blessing to many of the sick. In this State, with its more than 3,000,000 of inhabitants, at least one hundred people each year grow blind from the formation of cataract. Many of these unfortunates are not able to pay for the services of a skilled opthalmologist. these can be brought even from the remotest parts of the State to your Hospital at Ann Arbor more than four hundred cataracts have been removed and sight restored dur- ing the past five years. If the sight of an eye is worth $500, this operation alone has within the period mentioned paid for the entire building and equipment of the hospital. Moreover, removal of cataracts is only one of the many operations done int eh Opthalmological Department, and during the time mentioned above more than 4,000 other operations have been per- formed upon the eyes of the poor. The COLUMN 4 good that can be done to the derserving poor fo this State by the proper treatment of diseases of the eye alone will more than justify the existence of this new Hospital. In your sugical clinic many major op- erations will be performed. Club foot, cleft palate and many other mal-forma- tions amoung the children of the poor may be remedied. many who are incapacitated by the ecistence of grace hernias may be cured by radical operation, after which they will be able to return to the produc- tive classes. Tubercular joints may be cured; tamors removed; fissures healed, and many operations in minor surgery may transform a life of pain and dependence into one of joy and productiveness. If to heal the sick and to return the deformed to the image of God are worthy deeds there is enough in the erection, equipment and management of his Hospital to interest every person in the State. You will doubtlessly find that this Hos pital will soon by outgrown by your in- creasing needs. Moreover, you will de-
PAGE 11COLUMN 1 sire special buildings for the treamtents of certain diseases. I will refer to one dis- ease which is becoming of the greatest importance to us and against the spread of which it is desirable that state action should be taken. Of the 70,000,000 people living in the United States to-day, 10,000,000 or more will, unless something be done to prevent it, die of tuberculosis. In the census year of 1890, 102,199 deaths are reported as due to pulmonary tuberculousis or consumption. To the re- proted, not less than thirty per cent should be added in order to arrive at the actual number. When this computation is made, it will be found that the annual number of deaths in this country from pulmonary tu- berculosis alone am ounts to nearly 133,- 000. I know of no reliable date from which we can ascertain the number of deaths from tuberculosis of other organs than the lungs. However, knowing, as we do that every part of the body—the skin, the muscles, the bones, the nerv- ous system, the abdominal and pelvic vis- cera—are all occasionally, and some of them frequent sufferers from the invasion of tubercle bacilli, we will hardly be ac- cused of exaggeration when we state that in all probability this microganism is di- rectly or indirectly the cause of not less than 150,000 deaths in this country each year. The number of persons infected with tuberculosis is probably not less than 1,200,000. These figures are probably too small. Germany hasa a population equal to about three-fourths that of this country and the number of consumptives in the German Empire is not less than 1,200,000 and the any=nual deaths from this disease in the same country ranges from 170,000 to 180,000. However, the estimates which I have givens are sufficiently larges to ren- der the subject of the restriction of tuber- culosis worthy of the consideration of every one who is interseted in the welfare of the human race. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that unless some effort is made to prevent it, the mortality from tuberculosis will increase with improved facilities of trravel and the greater ease with which the consumptives invalid, even in the advanced stages of the disease, mingles with and infects the healthy. When the consumptive knows how, and properly attends to the thorough descrution of the germs thrown off from his body, there is no longer any danger of his be- coming a center of infection. Residence in a properly conducted hospital arranged especially for the care and treatment of tuberculosis patients, would be perfectly safe. The danger of ingection in such a house would be much less than that to which the traveler subjects himself every time he passes a night in a hotel. In the latter instance, one is assigned to a room, the condition of the previous occupant of which is wholly unknown to him. The bed may have been occupied by a careless consumptive who has scattered the seeds of the disease about him. Wherever we gom we are in danger of being infected, but if certain well known rules should be followed in detail, the infected and the uninfected might mingle without danger. The bravest man may hesitate to walk through a jungle which conceals a single savage beast, but even the timid do not hesitate to approach a whole menagerie of caged lions. Every state should establish one or more hospitals for the education and treatment of it consumptives. These hospitals would have a two-fold use. The training of its inmates in methods of re- stricting the disease would be of untold benefit, and it is now generally conceded that the insitutional treatment of this dis- ease is more successful than any other. Only in such insitutions can the dietic and hygientic treatment be carried out sat- isfactorily, and all agree that this is of more importance than the use of medicinal agents. In hospitals for conumptives the cures amount to about twenty-five per cent. This can not be done in private practice even when aided by specially favorable climate ; but says one, the treat- ment which you propose would be, if carried out, an expensive one. This is true, but is it not also true that we are paying heavy tribute to this disease? How much loss in money do the 150,000 annual deaths from this diease entail? How COLUMN 2 great a financial less alone will it be to this country when one-seventh of those, now living beocme its victims, many of them after years of sickness during a large part of which time they will be unable to earn their daily bread? I will not at- tempt to name [?] money value of these lives, the question is above any financial consideration. It is one of the welfare of the human race. Has anything of this kind ever been? Yea, fortunately, we have a parallel in the method by which leprosy was eradicated from Europe. Hirsch tells us that after the wars of the Crusaders, leprosy became fearfully pre- valent all over Europe. Our ancestors re- cognized the fact that there was only one way of ridding themselves of this plague. At one time, according to the same au- thority, there were no less than 1900 leper hospitals or retreats in Europe. The leaper must live in one of these. He could go from one to another ; but if he traveled by day he was compled to wear a dis- tinctive garb by which he could be recog- nised and shunned ; and if by night, he must carry a bell, the tingle of this would warn those whom he should meet. Now, by a much more humane method, we and our descendants can stamp our tuberco- losis. In the proposed plan, it would be unnecessary for every consumptive to go to such a hospital, nor would it be neces- sary for even the incurable to remain in this place indefinitely. The intelligent tubercle patient after having received proper instruction as to the methods of disinfecting his sputum may live in in- timate relation with his family. There is nothing of cruelty in this proposition. On the other hand, it has everything to recommed it from a humane and even a sentimental standpoint. Massachusetts has begun this good work, by building and equipping a hospital for the care and in- struction of its consumptives. In conclusion let me say that there are two things in which I believe with all my soul. The State should make it possible for the poorest boy or girl to receive the highest education. The State should not permit any suffering which human skill can relieve to go unrelieved. May this Commonweath be one of the leaders in both of these good works. The founders of this State selected for its motto, Salus populi suprema lex est. When the people perfect this University and surround its Medical Department with hospitals in which those who are unfortunate enough to suffer from both poverty and disease may find relief, they will demonstrate that the welfare of the people is the higest duty of a state.